2 edition of Response probabilities as a function of context length and exposure duration of the stimulus. found in the catalog.
Response probabilities as a function of context length and exposure duration of the stimulus.
Written in English
Thesis (M.A.) - University of Toronto, 1962.
|The Physical Object|
Stimulus durations were 4 msec for 1 kHz (4 cycles), msec for Hz ( cycles), 2 msec for 4 kHz (8 cycles), and msec (9 cycles) for 6 kHz; (2) a ms bandlimited stimulus created by summing sinewaves of 1/octave frequencies ranging from to Hz with zero starting-phase shift (the stimulus onset and offset was tapered. the primary focus of the information processing model; temporal delay between presentation of stimulus and initiation of response, i.e. how long does it take the CNS and neuro-muscular systems to recognize, interpret, and respond to a stimulus. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. This result is based on the right hemisphere's response to a 1-min-duration contralateral stimulus for the case where the stimulus and response are divided into 50 (s duration) segments. In Fig. 7 A, the 50 stimulus segments and the 50 envelopes decoded from response segments are indexed sequentially from 1 to
Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which one or more components of an innate response (e.g., response probability, response duration) to a stimulus diminishes when the stimulus is repeated. Thus, habituation must be distinguished from extinction, which is an associative operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by a.
One example for such context effects evoked by preceding stimulation is the phenomenon of duration adaptation, in which the perceived duration of a target interval is prolonged (shortened) after. correct response for a particular combination of length of context and exposure duration, and in the lower number the estimated probability of correct response obtained by formula 1 from the.
The length of the context fragment did have a reliable effect on RT, as responses were faster for longer fragments. This variable was also related to item constraint, as more constraining items tended to be longer, with a correlation between the two variables of r However, the effect of item constraint was fully significant in models Cited by: Advertising length refers to the duration of exposure to a.
long time of exposure to the stimulus advertisement, whereas In the context of email marketing, longer email gap may lead to non. If in the experiments conducted by Serrano et al. () and in that conducted by Matos and Flores () the absence of stimulus control was due to collateral response patterns produced by t D.
A widely-used linear stimulus-response model is given by: (13) where is the concatenation of and as the TRFs at time t corresponding to speakers 1 and 2, respectively. Also, is the concatenation of the speech feature vectors at time t, and v t represents the observations noise.
The mean (±s.d.) duration of the startle response from the initial movement of the fish to maximum flexion of the body C-bend was ± ms (N=18 responses) and was not different at the sound levels tested (ANOVA, F 1,35 =, P=), indicating that the duration of the startle response was not dependent on stimulus level.
The latency and. Exposure therapy is an empirically supported treatment for anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and obsessive–compulsive disorders. The Society of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) designates exposure therapy for specific phobias as having strong research support, indicating that it is a well-established treatment (APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based.
Probabilities and Response probabilities as a function of context length and exposure duration of the stimulus. book frequencies are the likelihood of a response given a stimulus. They are used to measure or describe the effects of eliciting stimuli on responses.
It is the ratio of the number of times an event occurs compared with the number of times it could have occurred. Comparator model: • Repeated exposure to a stimulus allows construction of a mental representation of the stimulus; responses are only to degree of mismatch between external stimuli and internal representations.
idea is that each time the brain detects a stimulus, it forms a representation of that stimulus and compares that representation with memories of previously experienced stimuli. In either condition, the probability p(t) of correct report as a function of the stimulus duration (t) was well described by equation (), t 0 being the threshold of conscious perception (the longest ineffective exposure duration), and v(x, i) being the speed of encoding into VSTM at times t > t 0.
As manipulated by the hazard rate, temporal. We defined 3 factors in this analysis: group (controls vs. synesthetes) × congruence of stimulus set (congruent vs. incongruent) × exposure duration (from 10– ms) and tested whether they affected the probabilities of correctly reporting any given target in the display.
The Thermodynamic Formalism provides a rigorous mathematical framework for studying quantitative and qualitative aspects of dynamical systems. At its core, there is a variational principle that corresponds, in its simplest form, to the Maximum Entropy principle.
It is used as a statistical inference procedure to represent, by specific probability measures (Gibbs measures), the collective. Such data are directly useful in deriving exposure–response probabilistic functions for specific exposure variables commonly used in regulatory frameworks [e.g.
received levels (RLs)], as has been shown for Phase-I clinical trials in medicine and has been applied within other cetacean behavioral response studies (see Miller et al., Note that we kept the timing parameters and stimulus repetition probabilities identical to those of Summerfield et al.
() and even increased the block length, which should have made our test more sensitive to repetition probability than that of Summerfield et al. Further in-depth analyses also failed to find an effect of repetition. Rats were given exposure in individual boxes to either horizontal stripes, vertical stripes, a mixture of horizontal and vertical stripes, or no stripes in order to determine whether such exposure would affect preference in a stimulus choice situation.
Exposure to a particular stimulus pattern decreased the preference for a compartment whose walls were lined with it. Abstract.
One major class of stress paradigms termed emotional stresses possess distinct cognitive/affective components and model the human experience of fear and anxiety. Their capacity to engage adaptive response systems, notably the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, requires comparison with past experience, a function fulfilled by a network of interconnected structures in the.
It reproduces the Mach band illusion and explores the Gabor filter as a model for the receptive field of a simple cell in the primary visual cortex. The chapter also defines the anatomy of the visual system and the input response functions that explain how different areas of the brain involved in this system might “perceive” a visual stimulus.
A review and meta-analysis of methodological and subject variables influencing the exposure–affect relationship was performed on studies of the mere exposure effect published in the 20 years following R. Zajonc's (see record ) seminal monograph.
Stimulus type, stimulus complexity, presentation sequence, exposure duration, stimulus recognition, age of subject, delay between. An increase in behavioral response after length or repeated exposure to a stimulus.
Associative Learning Requires understanding how two or more pieces of information are related to each other. Sensory receptive fields (RFs) vary as a function of stimulus properties and measurement methods.
Previous stimuli or surrounding stimuli facilitate, suppress, or change the selectivity of sensory neurons' responses. Here, we propose that these spatiotemporal contextual dependencies are signatures of efficient perceptual inference and can be explained by a single neural.
Sensory processing involves identification of stimulus features, but also integration with the surrounding sensory and cognitive context. Previous work in animals and humans has shown fine-scale sensitivity to context in the form of learned knowledge about the statistics of the sensory environment, including relative probabilities of discrete units in a stream of sequential auditory input.
Various psychophysical methods have been used to study human haptic perception, although the selection of a particular method is often based on convention, rather than an analysis of which technique is optimal for the question being addressed.
In this review, classical psychophysical techniques used to measure sensory thresholds are described as well as more modern methods such as adaptive. Exposure assessment provides key input to the process of source-exposure-dose-response-risk characterization that addresses questions concerning the degree to which environmental contaminants pose risks to human and/or ecological health (NRC,; USEPA, a).A variety of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) models and methods may be used to characterize uncertainty or lack of.
Sound exposure. Recruitment effects were evaluated in four of the cats by inducing sensorineural hearing loss with an intense sound exposure. The methods for exposure were the same as those used in previous electrophysiological studies of loudness recruitment in domestic cats (Heinz and Young ).The exposure stimulus had a Hz bandwidth and center frequency of 2 kHz.
A comparison of neuronal response properties between the context, approach-avoidance, and defeat phases of the test showed that Far chamber+ neurons strongly overlapped with Social+ neurons (45/67, 67% vs chance 11%, p=×10 −11) and Home+ neurons with Social- neurons (37/60, 62% vs chance 7%, p=×10 −10, Figure 2i,j and Figure 2.
To exclude cases in which sound-related responses might cause an apparent response direction response, a neuron was classified as sensitive to response direction only if it showed a significant left vs. right firing difference for all four left vs. right stimulus pairings: sound 1 vs. sound 2, sound 1 vs.
sound 4, sound 3 vs. sound 2, and sound. The rate-of-change-account. Fraisse has proposed that perceived duration is a function of the rate of perceived changes. A literal interpretation of this statement, to which we will refer as the “rate-of-change-account”, predicts a monotonous, possibly linear, increase of perceived duration with the stimulus' objective rate of change or frequency.
Nevin et al. () assumed that on each trial, the probabilities of attending to the samples, p(A s), and to the comparisons, p(A c), were determined independently by a function derived from behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, ).Then, the probabilities of B 1 and B 2 given S 1 or S 2 were determined by the allocation of effective reinforcers to the cells of the matrix in Figure 1.
These results suggest that stimulus–response contingencies on the probabilistic regularities of the ongoing stimulus context are implicitly mapped and constantly revised.
length (L) in the. Odorants are coded in the primary olfactory processing centers by spatially and temporally distributed patterns of glomerular activity. Whereas the spatial distribution of odorant-induced responses is known to be conserved across individuals, the universality of its temporal structure is still debated.
Via fast two-photon calcium imaging, we analyzed the early phase of neuronal responses in. Occurs when repeated exposure to the same stimulus alters how a human or other animal responds to that stimulus. Sensitization. The ability to transfer a learned stimulus-response association to a new stimulus that is similar to the original one, making the same response to it.
In the fixed duration task (Britten et al., ), each trial had the same length, so neural sensitivity and choice probability were calculated based on spike counts from the entire 2 s stimulus presentation period.
The fact that trials in a reaction time task have different durations presents some difficulties for data analysis. In the dictionary of behavioural interventions, Marshall defines exposure as every procedure that confronts the individual to a stimulus generating an undesired behaviour or emotional response.
There are many ways to face one’s fears, from imaginary exposure to exposure in real situations («in vivo») [ 12, 13 ]. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
It includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events. [need quotation to verify]Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a. conditional stimulus; such changes have been shown to strongly affect the strength of the conditional response in many conventional proce dures (e.g., Mackintosh,p.
However, when response rate, latency, and key illuminations with a response are considered, the duration of food presentation exercises only weak control over auto. For example, when the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) separating a briefly flashed digit and its subsequent mask is varied linearly, a sharp transition in visibility occurs around an SOA of 50 ms: below this duration, subjects tend to report the stimulus as completely unseen, whereas above it, stimuli are reported as clearly visible [25,27].
Response probabilities across the stimulus set are presented separately for each motor pattern in Fig. A Friedman's ANOVA revealed significant variation in orienting probability as a function of movement characteristics (χ 2 =, d.f.=17, P =).
The operant response requirement within the schedule context has not been extensively studied as a determinant of induced responding. In the present study, levels of induced attack by food-deprived pigeons against restrained conspecifics were compared during response-dependent and response-independent schedules of food presentation equated or.
the body to response to a stressful stimulus via a host of excitatory physiological changes, the PNS calms those functions and returns the body to baseline (Jacobs, ). The SNS is a component of the aforementioned SAM, triggered under exposure to acute stress, and it is.
The observed sequencing context effect appears to be independent of the differential response to the sounds prior to the probe stimulus window, since there was no significant correlation between the magnitude of the high-gamma response to the sound preceding the violation transition and the magnitude of the context-sensitive response during the.
The relative response proportions in AV trials (Figure 3B) were calculated by dividing the total number of responses in each response category (indicating the spatial deviation from the true stimulus location in the range between −° and +°) by the total trial number separately for the rightward and leftward adapted sound frequency.Figure 4 Public debt and the interest rate exposure to global shocks.
Notes: The chart plots the impulse response function of regressing daily changes in long-term nominal interest rates computed over a day period against the previous two-day change in the US VIX. The impulse response functions are plotted separately for the entire sample.